161 phytochemicals to be covered.
Terpenoids (isoprenoids)[edit]
Terpenoids (AKA isoprenoids) are lipids which are found in all living things. They are organic chemicals similar in structure to Terpenes.Terpenoids include Carotenoids, Triterpenoids, Monoterpenes and Steriods.
Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids)[edit]
orange pigments
α-Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
Like beta carotene, alpha carotene can be converted to retinal the active form of Vitamin A and consequently can be used for all the activities subscribed to Vitamin A.
β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
can be converted to retinal the active form of Vitamin A and consequently can be used for all the activities subscribed to Vitamin A.
γ-Carotene – to vitamin A,
Like beta carotene, gamma carotene can be converted to retinal the active form of Vitamin A and consequently can be used for all the activities subscribed to Vitamin A.
Delta carotene is used by plants to help synthesize alpha carotene and lycopene.
Lycopene – Vietnam Gac, tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots, autumn olive.
Lycopene is a carotenoid that is transported to the blood, fat tissue, skin, liver, adrenal glands, prostate and testes. It acts as an antioxidant and is believed to have anti cancer affects in the prostate. The later, however, has not been proven and the research is incomplete. Cooking enhances the concentration of lycopene.
Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
A carotenoid pigment found in the majority of vegetables that is believed to build up in the skin of human beings when these vegetables are eaten and is believed to absorb UV light. They act as antioxidants and as anti- inflammatory agents.

Phytoene – sweet potato, orange.
Phytoene is believed to have the same properties as phytofluene.

yellow pigments.
Canthaxanthin – paprika.
Canthaxanthin is the carotenoid which has been widely used as a colouring agent in our food supply and as a tanning agent for people who want an artificial tan although this outlawed in many countries.

. Cryptoxanthin to vitamin A, in – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
Cryptozanthin is a carotenoid that can be converted to vitamin A. It too acts as an antioxidant and is believed to prevent damage from free radicals to the cell and to our DNA

Zeaxanthin – wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
Zeaxanthin is a carotenoid that is synthesized mainly by plants. It gives foods such as paprika, corn, saffron and other yellow and green plants and micro-organisms their yellow hue. We get zeaxanthin mostly from the leaves of plants. It is active within the retina of the eye in the central macula or center of the eye. High levels of zeaxanthin in the diet are connected to lower levels of macular degeneration although there is no evidence of supplemental zeaxanthin having this affect.

Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs
Astaxanthin, also a yellow pigment, gives salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crustaceans and other shellfish their colour. It is known for its strong antioxidant activity. It is thought to protect body tissue from oxidative stress by suppressing NF-kB.
(”NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA. NF-κB is found in almost all animal cell types and is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial or viral antigens.[1][2][3][4][5] NF-κB plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection (κ light chains are critical components of immunoglobulins). Incorrect regulation of NF-κB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection, and improper immune development. NF-κB has also been implicated in processes of synaptic plasticity and memory.[6][7][8][9][10]
In brief, NF-κB can be understood to be a protein responsible for cytokine production and cell survival.”)
. Lutein – kale. spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, brassicates prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear, cilantro.
Lutein is a carotenoid and a sister compound to zeaxanthin. It is found in green leafy vegetables and in yellow carrots. It helps to deal with high levels of chlorophyll and it absorbs blue light thus protecting the eye from the damage caused by the free radicals created by blue light. It is active in the peripheral areas of the eye and along with zeaxanthin is known to protect against cataracts and macular degeneration.

Rubixanthin – rose hips. ‘A natural pigment with a red-orange colour found in rosehips’.

Memebers of the terpenoid family along with Carotenoids, Monoterpenes and Steriods.

Saponins – soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa
Saponins are triterpenoids found in plants and in some marine species. Saponins protect plants from microbes and fungi and can be toxic in large doses to animals and fish. They are poorly understood so far. Saponins from the plant ‘baby’s breath’ have been used to increase cell death in certain cancer cells. Some saponins are promoted by some as dietary supplements but there is little evidence to support this practice. Small amounts of some saponins are used in animal feed to reduce ammonia levels in feces excretion thus reducing respiratory tract infections in the animals.

Oleanolic acid – American pokeweed, honey mesquite, garlic, java apple, cloves, and many other Syzygium species.
A triterpenoid that exhibits anti tumor and antiviral properties. It has shown a some anti-HIV and ant-HCV activities. A synthetically produced form of oleanolic acid has been shown to be an extremely powerful inhibitor of cellular inflammation.

Ursolic acid – apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes.
A triterpene capable of inhibiting some cancer cell types by inhibiting the pathways by which the cancer is formed. It is also thought that it may induce cell death in some cancers as well as reducing T cell proliferation in leukemia victims.
Ursolic acid also reduces muscle atrophy and stimulates muscle growth in mice.
In mice experiments ursolic acid has shown a decrease in white fat and thus obesity and an increase in brown fat and muscle.

Betulinic acid – Ber tree, white birch, tropical carnivorous plants Triphyophyllum peltatum and Ancistrocladus heyneanus, Diospyros leucomelas a member of the persimmon family, Tetracera boiviniana, the jambul (Syzygium formosanum), chaga, and many other Syzygium species.
Has anti-retroviral and anti-malarial and anti inflammatory properties and has shown to act as an anticancer agent.

ret·ro·vi·rus  (rĕt′rō-vī′rəs, rĕt′rə-vī′-)
n. pl. ret·ro·vi·rus·es
Any of a group of viruses, many of which produce tumors, that contain RNA and reverse transcriptase, including the virus that causes AIDS.
Moronic acid – Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe
Moronic acid shows excellent antiviral properties and showed excellent anti-HIV and anti herpes simplex virus activity.

Limonene – oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil.
Limonene is a stable terpene that is found in the rind of the lemon and other citrus fruits. In the body limonene acts as an agonist or helps to activate adenosine. Adenosine is involved in helping us to relax and to sleep.

Steriods[edit] info on on all steroids

Phytosterols – almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils.
Campesterol – canola oil
Found in high amounts in canola and corn oils. Inhibits pro- inflammatory and matrix degradation mediators involved in osteoarthritis induced cartilage degradation.

beta Sitosterol – avocados, rice bran, wheat germ, corn oils, fennel, peanuts, soybeans, hawthorn, basil, buckwheat.
A phytosterol or plant sterol that is similar in chemical structure to cholesterol. Inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Like cholesterol it is transported by lipoproteins and incorporated into cell membranes throughout the body.

Stigmasterol – buckwheat and canola oil.
A sterol found in soybeans, canola oil and american ginseng as well as various vegetables, legumes , nuts, seeds and unpasteurized milk. Assists in the biosynthesis of male and female hormons and acts as a precursor to vitamin D3. Reduces absorption of both cholesterol an sitosterol significantly. It also works to inhibit inflammation and the degradation of cartilage involved in osteoarthritis.

Tocopherols (vitamin E)

omega-3, 6,9 fatty acids – dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts. see: lipids

gamma-linolenic acid – evening primrose, borage, blackcurrant.
see: lipids

Phenolic compounds[edit]
Natural monophenols[edit]
Apiole – parsley, celery leaf.
Apiole is a phenol found in the essential oils of celery leaf and parsley. It has been used historically to treat menstrual problems and when used in small amounts to induce abortions. If used in large amounts it will not induce an abortion but will cause nausea and will damage the liver and the kidneys.

Carnosol – rosemary, sage
An antioxidant which suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase which plays a role in autoimmune diseases and allergic reactions.

Carvacrol – oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot.
Is a monoterpenoid. Inhibits the growth of several bacteria strains. It causes damage to the cell membrane of these bacteria and inhibits the proliferation of the bacteria. It is used in the activation of gene expression and assists in suppressing inflammation.
It acts as an antioxidant in some cases and is an antimicrobial for 25 different periodontopathic bacteria and many fungi.

Dillapiole – dill, fennel root.
An essential oil closely related to apiole.

Rosemarinol – rosemary.
An antimicrobial and antibacterial agent.


red, blue, purple pigments
Quercetin – red and yellow onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans.
Preliminary research shows quercetin to be an inhibitor of the hepC virus and can also act against the replication of retroviruses.
It reduces the histamine levels and other inflammatory chemicals thus acting as an effective bronchodilator and anti inflammatory agent.
Provides significant improvement in chronic prostatitis in men.
Quercetin interacts adversely with some antibiotics,

Gingerol – ginger.
Gingerol has been studied and found to have anticancer properties for tumours in the bowel, breast, ovaries, pancreas and other tissues.

Kaempferol – tea, strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, grapefruit, apples, peas, brassicates (broccoli, kale, brussels sprouts, cabbage), chives, spinach, endive, leek, tomatoes.
Foods containing Kaempferol produce a long list of disease fighting results in many areas including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Kaempferol has shown to have a wide range of pharmacological activities such as as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti- diabetic, anti-osteoporotic, estrogenic/anti-estrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergenic. Kaempferol and resveratrol are known to increase mitochondrial function and energy expenditure and to increase longevity by reducing the accumulation lipofuscin – the aging marker.

Myricetin – grapes, red wine, berries, walnuts.
Has antioxidant properties. A correlation has been observed between myricetin and a reduction in prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer.
Myricetin reduces the levels of melatonin (the sleep hormone) and can affect the circadian rhythm.

Rutin aka Sophorin – citrus fruits, oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit, berries, peaches, apples, pagoda tree fruits, asparagus, buckwheat, parsley, tomatoes, apricots, rhubarb, tea.
A phenolic compound which is a citrus flavonoid.
In humans it attaches to iron ions thus preventing iron from binding to hydrogen peroxide which would create highly reactive free radicals that would damage our cells.
In animal studies but not in humans rutin has shown improve circulation by making the blood thinner by inhibiting the agregation of blood platelets. 2. shows anti-inflammatory activity. 3. Increases thyroid iodide uptake. 4. acts as a more powerful antioxidant than many other flavanoids.

Isorhamnetin – red turnip, goldenrod, mustard leaf, ginkgo biloba.
Anti cancer activity in colon cancer.

Hesperidin – citrus fruits.
In animal studies hesperidin has been shown to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure; to decrease bone density loss; protect against sepsis and has anti-inflammatory effects.
In vitro it showed pronounced anti cancer activity against certain human carcinoma lines and it showed the potential to travel across the blood brain barrier.

Naringenin – citrus fruits.
In vitro it has been observed to reduce damage to DNA and to reduce the hepatitis C virus production. It has been shown to protect mice that have a deficiency in the receptors for low density lipoproteins against obesity.
It has been found to lower cholesterol concentrations in high cholesterol diets in rats.
Shown in vivo and in vitro to block estrogen receptors in breast cells and to cause apoptosis in estrogen receptor cells after estrogen has completed its tasks.
Getting naringenin from the diet is quite difficult. A large glass of OJ will provide only about .5 nanomols per liter. About 150 times this amount is needed to protect against breast cancer.

Silybin – blessed milk thistle.
In vitro and in animal research it has shown to protect the liver against toxins. In vitro it has also shown anti-cancer activity against prostate cancer cells, human breast cancer cells, cervical carcinoma cells and colon cancer cells and human lung carcinoma cells.

A flavanone that has taste modifying properties.

Acacetin – Robinia pseudoacacia( black locust), Turnera diffusa (damiana). aka 4′-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone
A dietary flavone whose activity protects against chromosomal damage, specifically the tail of the chromosome or the telomere.
It also has anti estrogen properties.
Shown to control atrial fibrillation in dogs and has the potential to do so in humans.

Apigenin – chamomile, celery, parsley.
Can inhibit the enzyme CYP2C9 which is responsible for metabolizing of many pharmaceuticals.
Has been shown in animal studies to help prevent renal damage caused from the use of the drug cyclosporin.
Acts as an activator for monoamine transporters.
Believed to stimulate brain cell growth by promoting neuronal differentiation.

Chrysin – Passiflora caerulea (passion flower), Pleurotus ostreatus, (oyster mushroom) Oroxylum indicum (Indian trumpet flower).
May contribute to anti-inflammatory effects and is shown to act as a cox-2 inhibitor. Has no effect on estrogen levels but is believed to be disruptive to thyroid function.

Diosmetin – Vicia (legumes), spearmint, organo
Removes iron from liver cells and protects these cells from iron overload .
Has anticancer activity.
Is transformed into the flavanoid luteolin in the metabolic pathways.

Tangeritin – tangerine and other citrus peels.
A few preliminary studies show it has cholesterol lowering potential
A study on rats showed it to have protective effects agains Parkinson’s disease.
Shows ‘enormous’ activity as an anti cancer chemical.
In vitro it has been shown to induce cell death in leukemia cells while sparing normal cells.
In one study it has been shown to block production of cancer cells in 2 breast cancer cell types and in one colon cancer cell type.
In vitro is has been shown to have anti invasive, anti proliferation and it reduces the rate of mutations helping to prevent cancer in the first place.

Luteolin – beets, artichokes, celery, carrots, celeriac, rutabaga, parsley, mint, chamomile, lemongrass, chrysanthemum
Believed to have activities such as anti-inflammatory, immune system modulation and as an antioxidant. Studies both in vivo and in vitro suggest that it may inhibit the development of skin cancer

Flavan-3-ols (flavanols)
Catechins – white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, black-eyed peas.
A flavan-3-ol part of the family of flavonoids.
Involved in human gene expression by increasing or decreasing expression.
In mice catechin proved to lessen brain damage from a stroke.
Is believed to help in histamine related immune responses because it inhibits histamine production.
They act as selective monamine oxidase inhibitors. These are enzymes that reduce the symptoms of depression, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s patients.

. Gallic_acid Blackberry, walnuts, raspberry, cloves, vinegar, wine, white tea
Powerful antioxidant. Has anti viral and anti fungal properties.

(+)-Gallocatechin found in green tea, bananas, persimmon, pomegranate
Acts as an antioxidant. Has some affinity for the human cannabinoid receptor which has pain blocking activity.

Able to cross the blood brain barrier and activates the brain derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF which controls the neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It supports the survival and encourages the growth of these neurons.

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) – white tea, green tea; nuts, carob powder and some vegetables.
The most abundant catechin in white and green tea and is a potent antioxidant.
Induces cell death in endometrial carcinoma.
May reduce plaques related to AIDS-related dementia but only when administered in therapeutic doses not by drinking tea.
In vitro studies show preventative effects against gastrointestinal, prostate and other cancers but only when administered in therapeutic doses which are far higher than are obtainable by drinking tea.
In studies on mice it is effective against chronic fatigue syndrome, endemetriosis and Sjogren’s syndrom ( a lumphe system abnormality)
Found to increase the survival potential of neurons in spinal muscular atrophy.
Reduces iron accumulation in diseases of the mind.
May have therapeutic affects in inflammation of the gums around the teeth.
May help in pain reduction
Caution: Interferes with certain drugs. check with pharmacist.
“High intake of polyphenolic compounds during pregnancy is suspected to increase risk of neonatal leukemia. Bioflavonoid supplements should not be used by pregnant women.[37][3[39] Maternal consumption of tea or coffee during pregnancy may elevate the risk of childhood malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours through unknown mechanisms.[40

(-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate green tea, buckwheat and grapes
Has been shown to reverse resistance to the antibiotic methicillin thus increasing its effectiveness against bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus.

Theaflavin – black tea;
Theaflavin-3-gallate – black tea;
Theaflavin-3′-gallate – black tea;
Theaflavin-3,3′-digallate – black tea;
Theaflavins are polyphenols produced in the fermentation of black tea.
Have been found to inhibit HIV replication even more so than catechin derivatives.
One clinical trial on humans found that theaflavins reduce blood cholesterol.
In vitro theaflavins have been shown to regulate cancer growth, induce cell death and control the spread of cancer through metastasis by controlling angiogenesis ( the production of blood vessels).
Are shown to have powerful anti superoxide activity.

Thearubigins. – black tea
Formed in the fermentation process of black tea from catechins.
Responsible along with theaflavins for the taste of black tea
Have antioxidant properties.

Proanthocyanidins. – apples, cinnamon, cocoa beans, grape seed, grape skin and red wines, cranberry, black currant, green tea, black tea.
Are the simplest flavanols.
In vitro they have antioxidant properties with a high capacity to absorb free radicals.
Linked to reduced risk of heart disease. It reduces the production of proteins that constrict blood vessels. This activity was previously attributed to resveratrol but is now understood to be from proanthocyanidins.

Anthocyanidins (flavonals) or Anthocyanins – red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables.
Antioxidant activity. Shows cancer cell growth inhibition and death activity in vitro most strongly in breast cancer cells.

Pelargonidin – bilberry, raspberry, strawberry.
An antioxidant

Peonidin – bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach.
Shows cancer cell growth inhibition and death activity in vitro most strongly in breast cancer cells. They are eliminated from the body quickly so in vitro they are not as effective when consumed in the diet.

Cyanidin – red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa.
Antioxidant and oxygen radical scavenging effects which may reduce heart disease and cancer.

Delphinidin – bilberry, blueberry, eggplant, concord grapes, cranberries, pomegranates.
Acts as an antioxidant
Important molecular bonding agents called glucosides are derived from delphinidin.

Malvidin – malve, bilberry, blueberry.
Is a diglucoside

A glucoside

Isoflavones (phytoestrogens) use the 3-phenylchromen-4-one skeleton (with no hydroxyl group substitution on carbon at position 2).

Genistein (biochanin A) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes.
Acts as an antioxidant and as an anthelminitc (gets rid of worms in the body).
It also influences many biological functions in our cells.
It influences the expression of our genes through nuclear receptor proteins (PPARs).
Acts as an on/off switch through an enzyme called tyrosine kinase in many of our cellular functions.
Part of the control of the winding and unwinding of our chromosomal DNA
Activates Nrf2 which jumpstarts antioxidant activity.
Gets rid of unwanted or degraded cell components
Activates the cell receptor for estrogen beta. Has been linked to increase breast cancer activity.
Activates certain smooth muscle contractions
Can be toxic to both normal and cancer cells in high doses.
Believed to increase the risk of infant leukemia.

Glycitein – soy.
A phytoestrogen found in soy with weak estrogenic activity.

Daidzein (formononetin) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, kudzu, other legumes.
An isoflavane found in soy and other foods and is used by the body to produce the metabolite S-Equol in the intestines of people who are genetically predisposed to do so.
S-Equol has the effect of lowering the severity of symptoms of menopause and is believed that it may lower the risk of breast cancer but this has not been established as fact yet. There is also a link between S-Equol producers and lower rates of prostate cancer in men.

Coumestrol – red clover, alfalfa sprouts, soy, peas, brussels sprouts. spinach
A phytoestrogen that mimics the biological activity of estrogens. It has a much lower binding affinity than estrogen for estrogen receptors.

Silymarin – artichokes, milk thistle.
In animal studies and in humans that it protects liver cells against toxins.
It also has anticancer activity against the human prostate cancer cells, breast cancer (both estrogen dependent and independent) cells, cervical and colon cancer cells and in small and large human lung carcinoma cells.

A phytoestrogens – seeds (flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains (rye, oats, barley), bran (wheat, oat, rye), fruits (particularly berries) and vegetables.[2]
Matairesinol – flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli.
A plant lignan which is a prcursor to enterolignans that can reduce the risk of some cancers and heart disease.

Secoisolariciresinol – flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds,
pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots.
A lignan found in many seeds and berries has been found in animal studies to suppress weight gain by acting on gene expression that is related to the synthesis of of fatty acids. The appetite controlling hormone leptin is significantly increased by ingesting secoisolariciresinol thus preventing weight gain.

Pinoresinol and lariciresinol –[3] sesame seed, Brassica vegetables, olive oil
Converted to enterolignans in the intestines by microflora.
Acts as a hypoglycemic agent. (lowers blood sugar levels)
Is thought to have anticancer activity towards certain cancer cells.

Resveratrol – grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts, Japanese Knotweed root
Has been largely disproven to be as beneficial to humans as previously thought.
It does not appear to have any benefit to those who already have heart disease.
There is no evidence of anti cancer activity in humans.
There is some evidence in rodents of having an effect on metabolism but not in humans.
There is some evidence that there may be a protective capacity towards DNA thus increasing lifespan in mice but in humans this is unclear.

Pterostilbene – grapes, blueberries (not found in wine)
In animal studies it has been known significantly lower both blood lipids and cholesterol; lowers blood glucose levels in rats by as much as 56% while increasing insulin and hemoglobin levels to almost normal levels;
reduces oxidative stress; reduces and reverses cognitive impairment;
may act as an anticancer agent.

In humans the research is still young but in doses of 250 mg/day pterostilbene is shown to reduce blood pressure and help in weight but the studies are ongoing.

Piceatannol – grapes
Studies are incomplete but it has been seen to alter gene expression and
the inhibition of fat cell production in vivo.

Curcumin – turmeric, mustard. (Oxidizes to vanillin.)
Accounts for most of the activity found in turmeric.
It is known to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro.
It is presently being studied for its effects on diseases such as multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes, psoriasis, arthritis, alzheimer’s, pancreatic cancer and colon cancer.
It has been shown to attract vitamin D in the colon with cancer preventative results.

Hydrolyzable tannin[edit]
Inhibits cancer growth in prostate cancer.
Acts as an antioxidant and an antimicrobial.
Thought to be helpful against malaria.

Punicalagins – pomegranates, tea, berries
Is a type of ellagitannin a type of phenolic compound

Aromatic acid[edit]
Phenolic acids[edit]
Salicylic acid – willow tree, blackberries, blueberries, cantaloupes, dates, raisins, kiwi fruits, apricots, green pepper, olives tomatoes, radish, mushrooms, almonds, water chestnuts, peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat.
Is an important metabolite of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid).
Has medicinal properties and is known for its ability to control pain and reduce fever and is an anti-inflammatory.

Vanillin – vanilla beans, cloves.
It is the most prevalent of about 200 flavour compounds found in vanilla.
It is also found in much lower concentrations in olive oil, butter, rasberry and lychee fruits. It contribution to our food is as a flavouring agent.

Ellagic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes, pomegranate, pecans
In animal studies ellagic acid has shown in vitro to have antioxidant properties and antiproliferative properties (they inhibit or prevent cell growth). The fact that it can inhibit DNA binding of some carcinogens may be the reason for its antiproliferative abilities.
Ellagic acid has not been proven to have extensive anti cancer activities nor has it been shown to have the ability to prevent or stop heart disease or any other disease

Tannin – nettles, tea, berries, apples, red wine and grape juice, persimmons, hazelnuts, walnuts and pecans, smoked foods, cloves, tarragon, cumin, thyme, vanilla and cinnamon, red coloured beans, chocolate liquor.
Is used medicinally to inactivate viruses such as polio, herpes simplex and others.
Tannins have shown in vivo to have antiviral, antibacterial and antiparasitic activity.
Foods rich in tannins can be used to treat hemocromatosis which is a genetic disease that causes the body to absorb and store excessive amounts of dietary iron. 1 in 200 people of European dissent carry this gene. Tannins block iron from entering and being stored inour bodies.
Tannins can accelerate blood clotting, reduce blood pressure, reduce fat levels in the blood stream and moderate excessive immune response or increase needed immune response.

Anacardic acid – cashews, mangoes.
A phenolic acid found in the shells of cashew nuts, cashew apples and cashew nutshell oil as well as mangos and pelargonium geraniums.
It has antibacterial properties and is used to combat bacteria in tooth abscesses, acne, tuberculosis and MRSA ( a staphylococcus infection).
Heating this acid makes it much less potent.

Hydroxycinnamic acids[edit]
Caffeic acid –coffee, burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple, olive oil.
No relation to caffeine.
Caffeic acid has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of cancer cells in fibrosarcoma cell lines.
It is also an antioxidant both in vitro and in vivo.
It modulates the immune response and acts as an anti-inflammatory.
It outperforms other antioxidants by 95% in reducing carcinogen production (aflatoxin production).
Large quantities of caffeic acid given to rats have mixed results. It produces stomach papillomas on the one hand but in conjunction with other antioxidants decreases the growth of colon tumors in the same rats. There ave been no known ill effects of caffeic acid in humans.

Chlorogenic acid – echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries.
They are antihypertensive.
In mice have shown to have weak mood elevating properties.
Has a protective effect on dopamine activated neurons against inflammation.

Cinnamic acid – cinnamon, aloe.
Used as a flavouring compound

Ferulic acid – oats bran, rice bran, artichoke, orange, pineapple, apple, peanut.
Used by the body to crosslink lignin and polysaccharides creating rigidity in the cell walls.
Acts as an antioxidant in vitro and may have direct anti tumor activity against both breast and liver cancer.
It is believed to cause cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells but the studies have not been done on humans so the findings for humans are not confirmed.

Coumarin – citrus fruits, maize.
Can be used to form chemicals with anti coagulant properties and is used in the making of coumadin (warfarin). It is a vitamin K antagonist. Cassia bark ( a type of cinnamon) has high levels of coumarin and should be consumed only in small quantities or not at all by smaller people. Ceylon cinnamon has very tiny amounts of coumarin.

Capsaicin[edit] – Hot peppers
One of six capsaisinoids.
Acts as an analgesic preventing localized pain when applied topically.
Because of its ability to affect heat producing pathways in the body it is known to have an effect on the breakdown of carbohydrate leading to lowered blood sugar levels.
Capsaicin binds to a protein (TRPV1) on heat and pain sensing neurons causing the them to respond at lower temperatures than normal body temperature thus giving the sensation of heat with or without actual heat or pain. Prolonged exposure to capsaicin dulls the neurotransmitter for pain and heat telling the mind that we are not in pain. When the effects of the capsaicin wear off the neurons return to normal.
“The result appears to be that the chemical mimics a burning sensation; the nerves are overwhelmed by the influx, and are unable to report pain for an extended period of time. With chronic exposure to capsaicin, neurons are depleted of neurotransmitters, leading to reduction in sensation of pain and blockade of neurogenic inflammation. If capsaicin is removed, the neurons recover.[32][33][citation needed]”
The American Cancer Society has found in vivo studies that believe capsaicin can kill prostate and lung cancer cells causing them to go into apoptosis. Studies on mice in both Japan and China showed that it inhibits the growth of leukemic cells.
Capsaiscin does not actually damage cells but activates the neurons involved in the pain associated with the pain of being burned or damaged.

Tyrosol – olive oil, white wine
An antioxidant.
Forms esters with fatty acids.
Has protective affects on the heart and guards against stroke by increasing the expression of certain proteins that create heart health.

Hydroxytyrosol – olive oil
Next to gallic acid it is the most powerful antioxidant known. It is found in extra virgin olive oil but it is most available in the olive leaf from which it is extracted for medical purposes because of both its immunostimulant and antibiotic properties.
It is known in vitro to inhibit platelet aggregation.
Studies on rats have shown that it reduces oxidative stress.
Both in vitro and in vivo data show that it has a neuroprotective affect by protecting the mitochondria in the brain.

Oleocanthal – olive oil
Has anti inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro.
Four and one half teaspoons of olive oil has the same anti-inflammatory properties as one tenth of an ibuprofen dose. Regular use of olive oil will help reduce inflammation.
It has been discovered that it also reduces the accumulation of beta-amyloid proteins involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Oleuropein – olive oil
Powerful antioxidant in vitro. Strengthens the immune system.
Enhances heat production from brown adipose tissue.
It is usually removed from olive oil because of its bitter taste.

. wholegrain wheat, rye and barley, the bran of cereal grains, gingko biloba
In vitro Alkylresorcinols can prevent cells from turning cancerous but they can do nothing about cancer cells that have already formed.


The precursor to isothiocyanates[edit]
Sinigrin (the precursor to allyl isothiocyanate)- broccoli family, brussels sprouts, black mustard, horseradish
A glucosinolate. Acts as an antimicrobial.
Can be converted into allyl-isothiocyanate or AITC. AITC has unique anti cancer properties in bladder, colon and prostate cancers.

Glucotropaeolin the precursor to benzyl isothiocyanate which is an antiparasitic found in papaya.

Gluconasturtiin the precursor to phenethyl isothiocyanate which is being studied for its anti cancer activity.

Glucoraphanin – Brassicates: broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbages
Glucoraphanin is the precursor to sulforaphane which is an organosulfur compound. Sulforaphane has powerful anticancer and antimicrobial properties.

Aglycone derivatives[edit]
Dithiolthiones (isothiocyanates)
Sulforaphane – Brassicates: broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbages
Sulforaphane has powerful anticancer and antimicrobial properties.
It is known to inhibit Helicobacter pylori growth (the microbial that causes ulcers and gastritis and can ultimately lead to stomach cancer).
Sulfuphane is known to inactivate prostate cancer cells and it has also shown in vitro to inhibit cancer cell production in breast cancer stem cells.
It is believed to have an inhibitory effect on tumour expression because of its ability to enhance the activity of tumor suppressor proteins.

Allyl isothiocyanate
Is used as a flavouring in food.

Phenethyl Isothiocyanate – PEITC
PEITC has strong cancer preventive activities and PEITC and curcumin (turmeric) together have inhibitory affects on tumour growth. One of these alone does not have as much of an effect on tumour growth.

Benzyl Isothiocyanate
An antiparasitic found in papaya.
Induces cancer cell death
Effective against human pancreatic cancer cells.

“Oxazolidine-2- thiones – are closely related to isothiocyanates. One way they are produced is by the conversion of the glucosinolate progoitrin in rapeseed meal to goitrin which in turn is hydolyzed to these compounds. Oxazolidine-2-thiones depress growth and increase the incidence of goiters. They inhibit thyroid function by blocking the incorporation of iodine into thyroxine precursors and by suppressing thyroxine secretion from the thyroid.” 9.4.3 p.141

Nitriles are found in a wide variety of plants such as almonds, and when cooked in brassica crops such as cabbage, brussel sprouts and cauliflower.
The complete or reduced occurrence of thiocyanate in the body is damaging to its defense system.

Organosulfides/ Organosulfur compounds[edit]
Polysulfides (allium compounds)
chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms

Allyl methyl trisulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
A member of a class of natural chemicals that can inhibit chemical carcinogenesis.

Diallyl disulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
An organosulfur compound which detoxifies the cells. It increases the production of glutathione S-transferase. This is the enzyme which binds toxins in the cell and escorts them from the cell. It also acts as a powerful antimicrobial which fights against the Helicobacter pylori bacteria which causes stomach ulcers as well as other malicious microbes.
It is a major component in the destruction of colon cancer cells and it is protective against cardiovascular disease by reducing oxidative stress and by activating the ion channel which leads to short term lowering of blood pressure.

Indole-3-carbinol – cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens, broccoli.
Is believed to have anticancer activity as well as acting as an antioxidant. It has also been studied and shown to have some affect on reducing blocked arteries.

3,3′-Diindolylmethane or DIM – broccoli family, brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale
Created by the digestion of indole-3-carbinol. This is the phytonutrient that makes brassica vegetables famous. It is being intensely studied for its anticancer activities in its ability to target specific proteins. These activities include:
anti-angiogenesis (angiogenesis is the increase in the network of veins. Angiogenesis becomes a problem when veins are increased in order to feed spreading cancer cells. )
Anti-inflammatory. (Inflammation leads to cell destruction and altered DNA )
Hormone control (Excessive hormone production such as is sometimes found with estrogen are often implicated in altered DNA replication.)
Antiviral, antibacterial and anti-carcinogenic
Apoptosis (Increases cell death in cells that are not functioning normally. ie: cancer cells)
Cytostasis (regulation of cell growth)

All of these activities are governed by specific proteins which DIM interacts with.

Allicin – garlic
An organosulfur compound converted from alliin in garlic is responsible for the smell of fresh garlic. It is very unstable and quickly loses its potency. It is best maintained in water.
Allicin is anti-parasitic or anti-protozoal; antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiviral.
In the plant allicin is garlics defense against pests. Apparently when consumed fresh it has the same affect on our bodies.

Alliin – garlic
A sulfoxide that is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine. It is the substrate the enzyme alliinase uses to create allicin

Allyl isothiocyanate – horseradish, mustard, wasabi
An organic sulfur compound found in mustard, radish, horseradish and wasabi. Its taste wards off plant eating animals thus protecting the plant.
It is often used for tear gas and is used as a food flavouring agent. It is toxic in high amounts. (151 mg/kg)

Piperine – black pepper
Known to interfere with drug metabolism.
Increases the bioavailability of curcumin by 2000%. Because curcumin has strong anti-carcinogenic and anti tumour capabilities increasing its bioavailability is important in the fight against cancer. It is known to possess anti-angiogenic activity reducing the number of blood vessels feeding tumours.
Piperine has also shown anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects in humans.

Syn-propanethial-S-oxide – cut onions.
The gaseous chemical that is formed when onions are cut causing a burning sensation and triggering the eyes to tear up in order to wash the irritant out of the eyes.

betanin – beets, chard
Used as a food colouring

Betaxanthins (non glycosidic versions)
Indicaxanthin – beets, sicilian prickly pear
A powerful antioxidant.
Vulgaxanthin – beets
Provides the yellow colour in beets and swiss chard among other plants and is an antioxidant.

A derivative of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is found in green leafy vegetables and is found to be at its highest level of over 5% in spinach. Chlorophyllin, unlike chlorophyll, is water soluble and can readily bind to and disarm mutagens. Mutagens are one of the substances that cause DNA mutations that lead to cancer and other illnesses. Chlorophyllin is about 20 times stronger than resveratrol and thousands of times more powerful than xanthines.
Chlorophyllin is also used in controlling body odour resulting from colostomies or incontinence and for the treatment and odour control of wounds, injuries and radiation burns.
Other organic acids[edit]
Saturated cyclic acids
Phytic acid – (inositol hexaphosphate or phytate) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin seeds, beans, almonds.
Used by plants to construct cell walls. Undigestable in humans and all non-ruminates unless broken down by soaking in an acid base or by lactic acid fermentation or sprouting.
Phytic acid is used by the human body in DNA repair but this phytic acid is not obtained through the diet but is created inside the cell by the synthesis of phosphate and inositol which is produced from glucose in the liver.
Dietary phytic acid which has not been broken down will bind with important minerals such as zinc, iron and calcium and can create a deficiency of these minerals in our bodies.

. Quinic acid – coffee beans
Used in pharmaceuticals in the synthesis of new drugs.

Oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper.
An organic compound used in the Krebs citric acid cycle. Oxalic acid tends to bond with metal ions and therefore becomes problematic when it bonds to calcium in the kidneys thus creating kidney stones.
Works in the cell to block the production of anaerobic (without oxygen) energy. Because cancer cells feed off anaerobic metabolism they are inhibited by the activity of oxalic acid.

Tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes, tamarind.
Acts as an antioxidant when used as a food additive. Causes muscle toxicity by blocking malic acid production and can cause muscle paralysis and death when taken in high doses of 7.5 grams per kg of body weight. This would require about 500 grams (1.1 lbs) for a person weighing 150 lbs. It is used extensively in pharmaceutical preparations to improve the taste of oral medications.

Malic acid – fruits & vegetables
An organic compound made by all living organisms. It has a pleasantly sour taste and is used as a food additive. In our bodies it is used in both the Krebs citric acid cycle.

Anethole – – anise, fennel, liquorice and star anise.
An organic compound used as flavouring.
Has potent anti microbial properties against yeast, fungi and bacteria. It is also useful as an isecticide and is even more effective than DEET. It is used as a fumigant against cockroaches, weevils and beetles and is an effective insect repellant against mosquitos. Works synergistically with anacardic acid.

Coutaric acid
Acts as a transporter for anthocyanins

Fertaric acid
A polyphenol /hydroxycinnamic acid found in wine and grapes that provies flavour.

1. Phenolic Compounds

Phenols are classified either as simple or monophenols or as polyphenols depending on the number of phenol groups in the molecule. Phenols are produced by plants and by microorganisms. Phenols are synthesized by plants and microorganisms in response to attacks from such things as insects, pathogens wounding or UV radiation.

a. Natural Monophenols
b. Polyphenols
c. Aromatic acid
e. Tyrosol esters
d. Alkylresorcinols

a. Carotenoids

b. Monterpenes

c. Saponins

d. Lipids

e. Triterpenoids

3. Betalains
a. Betacyanins
b. Betaxanthins

5. Glucosinolate
a.The precursor to isothiocyanates
Aglycone derivatives
c. Organosulfides/Organosulfur compounds
d. Indoles

Protein inhibitors
a. Protease inhibitor

Other organic acids
Oxalic acid
b. Phytic acid
c. Tartaric acid
d. Anacardic acid
e. Malic acid

Phytochemicals – 12 Health Benefits of Rosemarinol